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2024/In Press

  • Schmälzle, R., Wilcox, S., & Huskey, R.. (submitted/under revision/in press). Brain imaging as a window into the biological basis of social cognition and communication. In. T. Reimer and L. van Swol, Lyn and A. Florack (Eds.). Handbook of Communication and Social Cognition.

  • Tamborini, R., Schmälzle, R., & Bowman, N. D.. (submitted/under revision/in press). The role of theory in media entertainment research. In. N. Bowman & N.D. Shackleford (Eds). Degruyter Handbook Entertainment Media and Communication, 1.

  • Huskey, R., & Schmälzle, R.. (submitted/under revision/in press). Finding middle ground In cognitive media psychology. In. N. Bowman & N.D. Shackleford (Eds). Degruyter Handbook Entertainment Media and Communication, 1.

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  • ​2023

  • Lim, S., & Schmälzle, R. (2023). (2023). The effect of source disclosure on evaluation of AI-generated messages: A two-part study. arRxiv. ​

  • Lim, S., & Schmälzle, R. (2023). Exploring the mechanisms of AI message generation: A chatbot development activity for students. Communication Teacher. 

  • Schmälzle, R., Liu, H., Delle, F., Lewin, K., Jahn, N. T., Zhang, Y., Yoon, H., & Long, J. (2023). Moment-by-moment tracking of audience brain responses to an engaging public speech: Replicating the reverse-message engineering approach. Communication Monographs. 

  • Schmälzle, R., Lim, S., Cho, H. J., Wu, J., & Bente, G. (2023). The VR Billboard Paradigm: Using VR and eye-tracking to examine the Exposure-Reception-Retention link in realistic communication environments. bioRxiv. 

  • Schmälzle, R., & Huskey, R. (2023). Skyhooks, Cranes, and the Construct Dump: A Comment on and Extension of Boster (2023). Asian Communication Research. 

  • Schmälzle, R., Wilcox, S., & Huskey, R. (in press). Brain imaging as a window into the biological basis of social cognition and communication. In. T. Reimer, L. van Swol, & A. Florack (Eds.). Handbook of Communication and Social Cognition.

  • Huskey, R., & Schmälzle, R.. (in press). Finding Middle Ground In Cognitive Media Psychology. In. N. Bowman & N.D. Shackleford (Eds). De Gruyter Handbook Entertainment Media and Communication. 

  • Schmälzle, R., & Huskey, R. (2023). Integrating Media Content Analysis, Reception Analysis, and Media Effects Studies. Frontiers in Neuroscience (Neuroscience and the Media). 

  • Lim, S., & Schmälzle, R.. (2023). Artificial intelligence for health message generation: Theory, method, and an empirical study using prompt engineering. Frontiers in Communication: Health Communication. 

  • Holmstrom, A., Dorrance-Hall, E., Wilcox, S., & Schmälzle, R.. (2023). Confirmation, Disconfirmation, and Communal Coping for Joint Physical Activity in Romantic Dyads. Health Communication.

  • Bente, G., Schmälzle, R., Jahn, N. T., & Schaaf, A. (2023). Measuring the Effects of Co-Location on Emotion Perception in Shared Virtual Environments: An Ecological Perspective. Frontiers in Virtual Reality. 


  • Novotny, E., & Bente, G. (2022). Identifying Signatures of Perceived Interpersonal Synchrony. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 46(4), 485-517.

  • Lee, J., Eden, A., Park, T., Ewoldsen, D. R., & Bente, G. (2022). Embodied motivation: spatial and temporal aspects of approach and avoidance in virtual reality. Media Psychology, 25(3), 387-410.

  • Syrjämäki, A. H., Ilves, M., Isokoski, P., Kiskola, J., Rantasila, A., Olsson, T., ... & Surakka, V. (2022). Emotionally toned online discussions evoke subjectively experienced emotional responses. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications.

  • Schmälzle, R.. (2022). Theory and method for studying how messages prompt shared brain responses along the sensation-to-cognition continuum. Communication Theory, 32(4), 450-460.

  • Schmälzle, R., & Wilcox, S.. (2022). Harnessing artificial intelligence for health message generation: The folic acid message engine. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(1), e28858.

  • Schmälzle, R., Wilcox, S., & Jahn, N. T.. (2022). Identifying moments of peak audience engagement from brain responses during story listening. Communication Monographs, 89(4), 515-538.

  • Jahn, N., Bente, G., & Schmälzle, R.. (2022). Media neuroscience on a shoestring: Examining electrocortical responses to visual stimuli via mobile EEG. Journal of Media Psychology.

  • Grady, S. M., Schmälzle, R., & Baldwin, J. A.. (2022). Examining the relationship between story structure and audience response: How shared brain activity varies over the course of a narrative. Projections – Journal for Movies and Mind, 16(3), 1-28.

  • Bente, G., Schmälzle, R., Kryston, K., & Jahn, N.. (2022). Building blocks of suspense. Subjective and physiological effects of narrative content and film music.. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 9, 449.


  • Grall, C., Weber, R., Tamborini, R., & Schmälzle, R.. (2021). Stories collectively engage listeners’ brains: Enhanced intersubject correlations during reception of personal narratives. Journal of Communication, 71(2), 332-355.

  • Krämer, N., & Bente, G. (2021). Interactions with Artificial Entities Reloaded: 20 Years of Research from a Social Psychological Perspective. i-com, 20(3), 253-262.

  • Bente, G., Novotny, E., Roth, D., & Al-Issa, A. (2021). Beyond Stereotypes: Analyzing Gender and Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Rapport (vol 11, 599703, 2020). Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

  • Baldwin, J., & Bente, G. (2021). The winner doesn’t take it all: Analyzing audience responses to an inspirational sports narrative. Media and Communication, 9(2), 202-214.

  • Anderson, J., Lapinski, M., Turner, M., Peng, T., & Schmälzle, R.. (2021). Speaking of values: Value-expressive communication and exercise intentions. Health Communication.

  • Schmälzle, R., Wilcox, S., & Grall, C.. (2021). Neuroimaging in environmental communication research. In. Takahashi, B. Metag, J. Thaker, J. & Evans-Comfort, S.: ICA-Routledge Handbook of International Trends in Environmental Communication, 437-448.

  • Dorrance-Hall, E., Wilcox, S., Holmstrom, A., McGraw, J., & Schmälzle, R.. (2021). Reactance to healthy eating and physical activity messages: Face threat and face management strategies in memorable daily conversations among couples. Health Communication.

  • Baldwin, J. A., & Schmälzle, R.. (2021). A character recognition tool for automatic detection of social characters in visual media content. Computational Communication Research.


  • Bente, G., & Novotny, E. (2020). Bodies and minds in sync: Forms and functions of interpersonal synchrony in human interaction. In K. Floyd & R. Weber (Eds.), Communication science and biology. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Schmälzle, R. & Grall, C. (2020). Mediated messages and synchronized brains. In K. Floyd & R. Weber (Eds.), Communication science and biology. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Schmälzle, R., & Grall, C. (2020). The coupled brains of captivated audiences: An investigation of the collective brain dynamics of an audience watching a suspenseful film. Journal of Media Psychology. 

  • Imhof, M. Schmälzle, R., Renner, B., & Schupp, H.T. (2020). Strong health messages increase audience brain coupling. NeuroImage.

  • Schmälzle, R. & Meshi, D. (2020). Communication Neuroscience: Theory, methodology, and experimental approaches. Communication Methods and Measures. 

  • Huskey, R., Eden, A., Grall, C., Meshi, D., Prena, K., Schmälzle, R., Scholz, C., Turner, B., & Wilcox, S. (2020). Marr’s tri-level framework integrates biology with communication science . Journal of Communication.

  • Grall, C. & Schmälzle, R. (2020). Neurocinematics. In: The International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology. (Eds. J. Van den Bulck, M.-L. Mares). Wiley-Blackwell’s International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology. 

  • Schmälzle, R., & Grall, C. (2020). Psychophysiological methods: Options, uses, and validity. In: The International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology. (Eds. J. Van den Bulck, M.-L. Mares). Wiley-Blackwell’s International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology.



  • Dai, Y. N., Viken, G., Joo, E., & Bente, G. (2018). Risk assessment in e-commerce: How sellers' photos, reputation scores, and the stake of a transaction influence buyers' purchase behavior and information processing. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 342-351. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.038

  • Geiger, A., Cleeremans, A., Bente, G., & Vogeley, K. (2018). Social cues alter implicit motor learning in a serial reaction time task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 197. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00197

  • Jording, M., Hartz, A., Bente, G., Schulte-Rüther, M., & Vogeley, K. (2018). The “social gaze space:“ A taxonomy for gaze-based communication in triadic interactions. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 226. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00226

  • Koban, K., Breuer, J., Rieger, D., Mohseni, M. R., Noack, S., Bente, G., & Ohler, P. (2018). Playing for the thrill and skill. Quiz games as means for mood and competence repair. Media Psychology, 1-26.  doi: 10.1080/15213269.2018.1515637

  • Eden, A., & Ahn, S. J. (2018). What’s Next? The Future of Digital Entertainment. Communication Research Reports. 35(5), 379–380.

  • Eden, A., Ewoldsen, D., Lee, J., & Beyea, D. (2018). Behavioral demands as behavioral affordances in video games. In N.D. Bowman, (Ed.) Video Games: A Medium that Demands our Attention.

  • Ravaja, N., Bente, G., Kätsyri, J., Salminen, M., & Takala, T. (2018). Virtual character facial expressions influence human brain and facial EMG activity in a decision-making game. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 9(2), 285-298. doi: 10.1109/TAFFC.2016.2601101

  • Rieger, D., & Bente, G. (2018). Watching down cortisol levels? Effects of movie entertainment on psychophysiological recovery. SCM Studies in Communication and Media, 7(2), 231-255. doi: 10.5771/2192-4007-2018-2-103

  • Tamborini, R., Novotny, E., Prabhu, S., Hofer, M., Bente, G., Grall, C., Klebig, B., Hahn, L., Slaker, J., Ratan, R. (2018). The effect of behavioral synchrony with black or white virtual agents on outgroup trust. Computers in Human Behavior, 83, 176–183. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.01.037

  • Schlicht-Schmälzle, R., Chykina, V.,& Schmälzle, R. (2018). An Attitude Network Analysis of Post-National Citizenship Identities. PLOSOne. 

  • Kryston, K., Novotny, E., and Schmälzle, R., & Tamborini, R. (2018). Social demand in video games and the synchronization theory of flow. Ed. N. Bowman. Video Games: A Medium that Demands Our Attention. 

  • Kranzler, E., Schmälzle, R., O’Donnell, M. B., Pei, R. & Falk, E. B. (2018). Adolescent neural responses to anti-smoking messages, perceived effectiveness, and sharing intention. Media Psychology.

  • Sanders-Jackson, A., Clemens, C. & Wozniak, K. (2018). Using Social Media to Help Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults Quit Smoking: An In-depth Interview Study. eHealth: Current Evidence, Promises, Perils and Future Directions, 265-292.

  • Tan, A.S.L., Rees, V.W., Rodgeres, J., Agudile, E., Sokol, N.A., Yie, K. & Sanders-Jackson, A.+ (2018). Effects of Exposure to Anti-Vaping Public Service Announcements Among Current Smokers and Dual Users of Cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 188, 251-258.

  • Bigman, C., Mello, S., Sanders-Jackson, A & Tan, A.S.L. (2018). Assertive communication about others' smoking and vaping in public venues: Results from a National Survey of US adults. Addictive Behaviors, 87, 196-199.

  • Mello, S., Tan ASL, Sanders-Jackson, A & Bigman, CA (Online First, 2018). Gender Stereotypes and Preconception Health: Men’s and Women’s Expectations of Responsibility and Intentions to Engage in Preventive Behaviors. Maternal and Child Health Journal.

  • Lee, S.J., Sanders-Jackson, A., Fallin, A. & Tan A.S.L. (Online First, 2018). Comparing the effects of organic, natural, and no additives labels on tobacco packaging between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual smokers. Addictive Behaviors.

  • Bigman, C., Mello, S., Sanders-Jackson, A & Tan, A.S.L. (Online First, 2018). Speaking up about lighting up in public: Examining psychosocial correlates of smoking and vaping assertive communication intentions among US adults. Health Communication, 11(1).


  • Bowman, N, Wulf, T, & Bente, G (2017). “Drive the lane; together, hard!” an examination of the effects of supportive coplaying and task difficulty on prosocial behavior. Journal of Media Psychology, 29, 31-41. 

  • Breuer, J., Velez, J., Bowman, N. D., Wulf, T., & Bente, G. (2017). “Drive the lane; together, hard!”: An examination of the effects of supportive co-playing and task difficulty on prosocial behavior.Journal of Media Psychology, 29(1), 31–41. doi: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000209. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180780

  • Ernst, J., Schmitt, J. B., Rieger, D., Beier, A. K., Vorderer, P., Bente, G., & Roth, H. J. (2017). Hate beneath the counter speech? A qualitative content analysis of user comments on YouTube related to counter speech videos. Journal for Deradicalization, 10, 1-49.

  • Geiger, A., Niessen, E., Bente, G., & Vogeley, K. (2017). Eyes versus hands: How perceived stimuli influence motor actions. PloS One, 12(7), e0180780.

  • Rieger, D., Ernst, J., Schmitt, J. B., Vorderer, P., Bente, G. & Roth, H.-J. (2017). Propaganda und Alternativen im Internet – Medienpädagogische Implikationen. Medien + Erziehung, 3 (Hass und Hetz im Internet), 27-35.

  • Rieger, D., Frischlich, L., & Bente, G. (2017).Propaganda in an insecure, unstructured world: How psychological uncertainty and authoritarian attitudes shape the evaluation of right-wing extremist internet propaganda. Journal for Deradicalization, 10, 203-229. 

  • Rieger, D., Reinecke, L., & Bente, G. (2017).Media-induced recovery: The effects of positive versus negative media stimuli on recovery experience, cognitive performance, and energetic arousal.Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6(2), 174-191. doi: 10.1037/ppm0000075

  • Rieger, D., Schmitt, J. B., Ernst, J., Winkler, J. & Roth, H.-J.  (2017). Propaganda im Schulunterricht. Förderung von Medienkritikfähigkeit als Präventionsarbeit gegen Extremismus. Praxis Schulpsychologie, 12, 4-5. doi:10.1037/ppm0000075

  • Roth, D. Waldow, K. Latoschik, M.E., Fuhrmann, A. & Bente, G. (2017). Socially immersive avatar-based communication," 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), Los Angeles, CA, 2017, pp. 259-260. doi: 10.1109/VR.2017.7892275

  • Shin, S. Y., Jang, J. W., & Bente, G. (2017).The benefits of distance and mediation: How people react to conflicts in video chat vs. FtF. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.022

  • Imhof, M. A., Schmälzle, R., Renner, B., & Schupp, H. T.. (2017). How real-life health messages engage our brains: Shared processing of effective anti-alcohol videos. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience.

  • Schmälzle, R., Imhof, M. A., Grall, C., Flaisch, T., & Schupp, H. T.. (2017). Reliability of fMRI time series: Similarity of neural processing during movie viewing. biorxiv. 

  • Schmälzle, R., Brook O’Donnell, M., Garcia, J. O., Cascio, C. N. C., Bayer, J., Vettel, J., Bassett, D., & Falk, E. B.. (2017). Brain connectivity dynamics during social interaction reflect social network structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  • Schmälzle, R., Renner, B., & Schupp, H. T.. (2017). Health risk perception and risk communication. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

  • Sanders-Jackson, A., Tan, A.S.L., Yie, Kyeungyeun (Online First, 2017). Effects of Health-Oriented Descriptors on Combustible Cigarette and Electronic Cigarette Packaging: An Experiment Among Adult Smokers in the United States. Tobacco Control.

  • Tan, A.S.L., Mello, S., Sanders-Jackson, A. & Bigman, C. (2017). Knowledge about Chemicals in e‐Cigarette Secondhand Vapor and Perceived Harms of Exposure among a National Sample of US Adults, Risk Analysis, 37(6), 1170-1180.


  • Bente, G., Roth, D., Dratsch, T., & Kaspar, K. (2016). Emotions of my kin: disambiguating expressive body movement in minimal groups. Culture and Brain, 4(1), 51-71. doi: 10.1007/s40167-016-0038-3

  • Lugrin, J. L., Zilch, D., Roth, D., Bente, G., & Latoschik, M. E. (2016). FaceBo: Real-time face and body tracking for faithful avatar synthesis. Virtual Reality (VR), 2016 IEEE (pp. 225-226).

  • Ravaja, N., Bente, G., Katsyri, J., Salminen, M., Takala, T. (2016). Virtual Character Facial Expressions Influence Human Brain and Facial EMG Activity in a Decision-Making Game. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 99, 1 doi: 10.1109/TAFFC.2016.2601101

  • Roth, D., Lugrin, J. L., Büser, J., Bente, G., Fuhrmann, A., & Latoschik, M. E. (2016). A simplified inverse kinematic approach for embodied VR applications. Virtual Reality (VR), 2016 IEEE (pp. 275-276). doi: 10.1109/VR.2016.7504760

  • Roth, D., Lugrin, J. L., Galakhov, D., Hofmann, A., Bente, G., Latoschik, M. E., & Fuhrmann, A. (2016). Avatar realism and social interaction quality in virtual reality. Virtual Reality (VR), 2016 IEEE (pp. 277-278).

  • Roth, D., Waldow, K. Stetter, F., Bente, G., Latoschik, M. E., & Fuhrmann, A. (2016). SIAMC: A Socially Immersive Avatar Mediated Communication Platform. Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM Conference on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (pp. 357-358).  Doi: 10.1145/2993369.2996302.

  • Sanders-Jackson, A.*, Tan, A.S.L.*, Bigman, C., Mello, S & Neiderdeppe, J. (2016). To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation, PLoS One, 11(8), e0161124.

  • Gonzalez, M.E.*, Sanders-Jackson, A.* & Emery, J. (2016). Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior and Confidence in Filling Out Online Forms Among Latinos: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2012, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(7), e184.

  • Prochaska, J.J. & Sanders-Jackson, A. (2016). Patient Decision Aids for Discouraging Low-Value Health Care Procedures: Null Findings and Lessons Learned, JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(1), 41-42. 

  • Schupp, H. T., Kirmse, U., Schmälzle, R., Flaisch, T., & Renner, B.. (2016). Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials. Scientific reports, 6, 28091. 

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